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Mentions: A more detailed analysis of each of the categories of metabolites suggests specific variation potentially related with the cell stage. For instance, analysis of structural properties of the fatty acyl side chains of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids revealed that there was an increased abundance of the PC lipids with lower unsaturated fatty acyl chains as the promastigotes developed from day 3 to day 6 (Figure 6 and S4 in supplementary data); this seems also to happen in PE lipids, but less so than with PC lipids. These data suggest that there are changes in the composition of membranes with development from procyclic to metacyclic promastigotes. Another class of metabolites showing striking differences depending on the cell stage were the sphingolipids (SLs). In Leishmania, SLs are not essential for growth but they are for differentiation, probably due to the high demand in vesicular trafficking required for parasite remodeling . The abundance of these metabolites in general increased on day 5 and greatly on day 6, such that for some of the SLs identified, such as N-(eicosanoyl)-sphinganine, N-(hexadecanoyl)-sphinganine and heptadecasphinganine, the day 6 intensity amounted to more than 70% of the total amount detected over the four days (Figure 7A). A similar situation was seen with some of the identified glycerolipids, with the diacylglycerol putatively identified as DAG(42∶3) being especially increased on day 6 (Figure 7B). The abundance of sterols, prenol lipids and fatty acyl metabolites generally increased during growth and thus were more abundant on days 5 and 6, although there were exceptions such as N-(11Z-eicosaenoyl)-ethanolamine and N-(11Z,14Z-eicosaenoyl)-ethanolamine (Figures S5 and S6).
Metabolic Variation during Development in Culture of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes
Bottom Line: The genome sequencing of several Leishmania species has provided immense amounts of data and allowed the prediction of the metabolic pathways potentially operating.Subsequent genetic and proteomic studies have identified stage-specific proteins and putative virulence factors but many aspects of the metabolic adaptations of Leishmania remain to be elucidated.Most notable were the structural changes in glycerophospholipids and increase in the abundance of sphingolipids and glycerolipids as cells progress from logarithmic to stationary phase.
Affiliation: Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Abstract: The genome sequencing of several Leishmania species has provided immense amounts of data and allowed the prediction of the metabolic pathways potentially operating. Subsequent genetic and proteomic studies have identified stage-specific proteins and putative virulence factors but many aspects of the metabolic adaptations of Leishmania remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have used an untargeted metabolomics approach to analyze changes in the metabolite profile as promastigotes of L. donovani develop during in vitro cultures from logarithmic to stationary phase. The results show that the metabolomes of promastigotes on days 3-6 of culture differ significantly from each other, consistent with there being distinct developmental changes. Most notable were the structural changes in glycerophospholipids and increase in the abundance of sphingolipids and glycerolipids as cells progress from logarithmic to stationary phase.
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