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Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

Trincone A - Mar Drugs (2011)

Bottom Line: In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts.The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment.These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected.

Affiliation: Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy. antonio.trincone@icb.cnr.it

ABSTRACT

In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected.

Ulva conglobata crude enzyme reaction forming (R)-9-hydroperoxy-(10E,12Z)-10,12-octadecadienoic acid ((R)-9-HPODE).
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f6-marinedrugs-09-00478: Ulva conglobata crude enzyme reaction forming (R)-9-hydroperoxy-(10E,12Z)-10,12-octadecadienoic acid ((R)-9-HPODE).

Mentions: Numerous marine oxidoreductases are reported in literature [2]. An essential oil, which could be prepared by distillation of marine alga Ulva conglobata, contains different long- and short-chain unsaturated aldehydes which are formed from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA). Lipoxygenases (EC 1.13.11.12, LOX) catalyze the oxygenation of fatty acids containing a (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene moiety in a regio- and stereoselective manner involving the corresponding hydroperoxides converted into aldehydes. It has been reported that when LA and LNA were incubated with a crude enzyme of U. conglobata, the corresponding hydroperoxides (R)-9-HPODE and (R)-9-HPOTrE were formed (Figure 6) with a high e.e. (>99%), respectively. This regio- and stereoselective way differs from those found in plants and in other organisms and this is of interest in the applicative aspect of lipooxygenases [74]. From the synthetic chemist’s point of view, the asymmetric oxygenation reaction of unnatural substrates has remarkable potential.

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Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications

Trincone A - Mar Drugs (2011)

Ulva conglobata crude enzyme reaction forming (R)-9-hydroperoxy-(10E,12Z)-10,12-octadecadienoic acid ((R)-9-HPODE).
© Copyright Policy
f6-marinedrugs-09-00478: Ulva conglobata crude enzyme reaction forming (R)-9-hydroperoxy-(10E,12Z)-10,12-octadecadienoic acid ((R)-9-HPODE).
Mentions: Numerous marine oxidoreductases are reported in literature [2]. An essential oil, which could be prepared by distillation of marine alga Ulva conglobata, contains different long- and short-chain unsaturated aldehydes which are formed from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA). Lipoxygenases (EC 1.13.11.12, LOX) catalyze the oxygenation of fatty acids containing a (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene moiety in a regio- and stereoselective manner involving the corresponding hydroperoxides converted into aldehydes. It has been reported that when LA and LNA were incubated with a crude enzyme of U. conglobata, the corresponding hydroperoxides (R)-9-HPODE and (R)-9-HPOTrE were formed (Figure 6) with a high e.e. (>99%), respectively. This regio- and stereoselective way differs from those found in plants and in other organisms and this is of interest in the applicative aspect of lipooxygenases [74]. From the synthetic chemist’s point of view, the asymmetric oxygenation reaction of unnatural substrates has remarkable potential.

Bottom Line: In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts.The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment.These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected.

Affiliation: Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy. antonio.trincone@icb.cnr.it

ABSTRACT

Background: In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected.

View Similar Images In: Results  - Collection
View Article: Pubmed Central -  PubMed
Show All Figures - Show MeSH
getmorefigures.php?pmc=3124967&rFormat=json&query=null&req=5