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Mentions: Alternative fabrication approaches have also been developed to make plastic substrates an affordable solution. Grimes et al.36 introduced an inexpensive alternative for fabrication of microfluidic devices by utilizing thermoplastics such as polystyrene (PS). More recently, Nguyen et al.71 leveraged polyolefin (PO) film. PO which has been commonly used for the manufacturing of shrink wrap films, possesses excellent shape memory properties that can be recovered through the application of heat.71 Other attractive properties of the PO films are optical properties such as transmission over a large range of wavelengths in addition to low autofluorescence.71 It was also shown that by leveraging the shrinkage property of the PO sheets, high resolution microstructures can be generated obviating the need for photolithography and advanced tooling (Fig. 3). To demonstrate the applicability of this polymer, fluorescently tagged polyclonal antibodies proteins were stamped onto the PO surface via microcontact printing (μCP). After this, the substrate was heated and an increase in fluorescence was demonstrated indicating an increase in concentration due to the 95% shrink-induced decrease in surface area.Figure 3
Unconventional Low-Cost Fabrication and Patterning Techniques for Point of Care Diagnostics
Bottom Line: These advances can be leveraged for other biological assays as well, including for custom assay development and academic prototyping.These new approaches offer the promise of more rapid prototyping with less investment in capital equipment as well as greater flexibility in design.Though still in their infancy, these technologies hold potential to improve upon the resolution, sensitivity, flexibility, and cost-savings over more traditional approaches.
Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
Abstract: The potential of rapid, quantitative, and sensitive diagnosis has led to many innovative 'lab on chip' technologies for point of care diagnostic applications. Because these chips must be designed within strict cost constraints to be widely deployable, recent research in this area has produced extremely novel non-conventional micro- and nano-fabrication innovations. These advances can be leveraged for other biological assays as well, including for custom assay development and academic prototyping. The technologies reviewed here leverage extremely low-cost substrates and easily adoptable ways to pattern both structural and biological materials at high resolution in unprecedented ways. These new approaches offer the promise of more rapid prototyping with less investment in capital equipment as well as greater flexibility in design. Though still in their infancy, these technologies hold potential to improve upon the resolution, sensitivity, flexibility, and cost-savings over more traditional approaches.
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