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Mentions: In normal vulvar epithelium, none of the 11 cases showed nuclear 14-3-3σ immunostaining. Nevertheless, high level of cytoplasmic staining (score ≥ 6) was present in 11/11 (100%) cases. The 14-3-3σ immunostaining was found in the basal, parabasal, middle and top layers of the vulvar epithelium (Figure 1a). In vulvar carcinomas, high 14-3-3σ expression (score ≥ 6) in cytoplasm was found in 218 (72%) cases and low levels in 84 (28%), whereas, high levels of nuclear immunostaining of 14-3-3σ (any positive nuclei) were observed in 177 (59%) cases, and low levels in 125 (41%). High 14-3-3σ expression (score ≥ 6) in cytoplasm/nuclei was found in 226 (75%) cases and low levels in 76 (25%) (Figure 1b and Table 2).
The clinicopathological and prognostic impact of 14-3-3 sigma expression on vulvar squamous cell carcinomas
Bottom Line: Variations of 14-3-3sigma protein expression were not associated to disease-specific survival.Our results indicate that 14-3-3sigma may be involved in the development of a subset of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas by down-regulation of 14-3-3sigma protein.Neither cytoplasmic nor nuclear level of 14-3-3sigma expression was associated with prognosis.
Affiliation: Division of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: 14-3-3 sigma promotes G2/M cell cycle arrest by sequestering cyclin B1-CDC2 complex in cytoplasm. Down-regulation of 14-3-3sigma, which has been demonstrated in various carcinomas, may contribute to malignant transformation. However, the exact role of 14-3-3sigma in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinoma is not fully characterized, and the prognostic impact of 14-3-3sigma protein expression is still unknown.
Methods: We investigated the 14-3-3sigma expression in a series of 302 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and its associations with clinicopathological factors and clinical outcome.
Results: In cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus of vulvar carcinomas high 14-3-3sigma protein expression was found in 72%, 59% and 75% of the carcinomas, respectively, and low levels in 28%, 41% and 25% of the cases, respectively. High level of 14-3-3sigma in cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus was significantly correlated to large tumor diameter (p = 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively) and deep invasion (p = 0.01, p = 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). Variations of 14-3-3sigma protein expression were not associated to disease-specific survival.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that 14-3-3sigma may be involved in the development of a subset of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas by down-regulation of 14-3-3sigma protein. Neither cytoplasmic nor nuclear level of 14-3-3sigma expression was associated with prognosis.
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