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Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS:L) mean T scores (with mean standard error) for ADHD group versus controls. CPRS:L scales; A: Oppositional, B: Cognitive Problems/Inattention, C: Hyperactivity, D: Anxious-Shy, E: Perfectionism, F: Social Problems, G: Psychosomatic, H: Conners' ADHD Index, I: CGI Restlessness-Impulsive, J: CGI Emotional Lability, K: CGI Total, L: DSM-IV Inattentive, M: DSM-IV Hyperactive-Impulsive, N: DSM-IV Total. ADHD group presented with significantly higher mean raw scores on Scales A-C and H-N, for a total of 10/14 scales. Significantly different from control group ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.04.
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Figure 1: Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS:L) mean T scores (with mean standard error) for ADHD group versus controls. CPRS:L scales; A: Oppositional, B: Cognitive Problems/Inattention, C: Hyperactivity, D: Anxious-Shy, E: Perfectionism, F: Social Problems, G: Psychosomatic, H: Conners' ADHD Index, I: CGI Restlessness-Impulsive, J: CGI Emotional Lability, K: CGI Total, L: DSM-IV Inattentive, M: DSM-IV Hyperactive-Impulsive, N: DSM-IV Total. ADHD group presented with significantly higher mean raw scores on Scales A-C and H-N, for a total of 10/14 scales. Significantly different from control group ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.04.

Mentions: Analysis of the Conners' Parent Rating Scales Long Version (CPRS:L) revealed several significant differences between the ADHD and control groups (Table 2). When compared to the control group, the ADHD group presented with significantly higher mean T scores on ten of the fourteen scales included in the assessment (p < 0.05) (Figure 1). These included measures for oppositional behaviours, cognitive problems and inattention, restlessness and impulsivity, hyperactivity, emotional lability and overall problematic behaviour. Children were also identified as 'at risk' through scores on the ADHD index, while also being assessed on scales directly related to DSM-IV criteria including inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and total DSM scores.

Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adolescents: A case-control study

Colter AL, Cutler C, Meckling KA - Nutr J (2008)

Bottom Line: Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed.In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales.Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake.

Affiliation: Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. kmecklin@uoguelph.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Most studies of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on either young children or older adults. The current study compared 11 ADHD adolescents with 12 age-matched controls. The purpose was to examine differences in dietary intake, particularly of essential fatty acids, and determine whether this could explain the typical abnormalities in red blood cell fatty acids observed in previous studies of young children. A secondary purpose was to determine if there were relationships between circulating concentrations of essential fatty acids and specific ADHD behaviours as measured by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-L).

Methods: Eleven ADHD adolescents and twelve age-matched controls were recruited through newspaper ads, posters and a university website. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed by medical practitioners according to DSM-IV criteria. Blood, dietary intake information as well as behavioural assessments were completed.

Results: Results showed that ADHD adolescents consumed more energy and fat than controls but had similar anthropometry. ADHD children consumed equivalent amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids to controls, however they had significantly lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and total omega-3 fatty acids, higher omega-6 fatty acids and a lower ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids than control subjects. In addition, low omega-3 status correlated with higher scores on several Conners' behavioural scales.

Conclusion: These data suggest that adolescents with ADHD continue to display abnormal essential fatty acid profiles that are often observed in younger children and distinctly different from normal controls of similar age. Further these red blood cell fatty acid differences are not explained by differences in intake. This suggests that there are metabolic differences in fatty acid handling between ADHD adolescents and normal controls. The value of omega-3 supplements to improve fatty acid profiles and possibly behaviours associated with ADHD, need to be examined.

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